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Port ofHamburg re
2023-01-21 | อ่าน

The Port of Hamburg lies on the shores of the Elbe River in Germany about 83 kilometers from the North Sea. It is about 110 kilometers east-southeast of thePort of Bremerhavenand some 58 kilometers southwest of thePort of Lubeck. The Port of Hamburg, with the official name The Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, is Germanys second biggest city, port, and commercial center. Clearly, the Port of Hamburg has a long history of self-determination. In fact, Hamburg andBremenare the only two German city-states that retain their medieval independence, a point of great pride for city residents. In 2002, over 1.7 million people lived in the Port of Hamburg, and over 2.5 million called the metropolitan area home.

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The Port of Hamburg is the most important component of the citys economy. Ranking second in Germany afterRotterdam, it is Europes ninth busiest international port. When Germany was reunified and the Port of Hamburg recovered its eastern hinterlands, it became the fastest-growing European port, and the many consulates in the city reveal its importance to international trade. In addition to the Port of Hamburg, the city has an important civil aerospace industry, with one Airbus plant employing more than 13 thousand workers. Heavy industries in the Port of Hamburg include several shipyards and manufacturers of steel, aluminum, and copper. Media businesses are important contributors to the local economy, with many television and radio stations and some of the countrys biggest publishing companies, including newspapers and magazines, in the Port of Hamburg. The city is also home to several music companies and Internet-based businesses.

In 825 AD, a moated castle appeared on a promontory between the Elbe and Alster Rivers that proved to the beginning of the future Port of Hamburg. UnderEmperor Louis the Piousin 834 AD, the castle became the seat of an archbishopric and the base for Archbishops missions to the heathens in north Europe. The Port of Hamburg was burned by theVikingsin 845 and eight more times over the next 300 years.

By the late 11th Century, commerce overtook religion as the Port of Hamburgs reason for being. The founding ofLubeckon the Baltic Sea byAdolf II, count of Holstein, promoted the growth of Hamburg as Lubecks North Sea port. In 1188, Adolph III of Schauenburg granted a charter to build a new town with a harbor on the Alster River with facilities that could use the Elbe. EmperorFrederick I Barbarossaconfirmed the privilege in 1189 with a special grant for trading rights, exemptions from tolls, and navigation privileges.

The Port of Hamburg continued to grow through the 13th Century to become an importantHanseatic Leaguecity, second only to Lubeck. The Port of Hamburg was an important center for trade between Flanders and Russia, and it played an important role in protecting the Elbe trade routes by obtaining lands along the rivers branches. Over time, it gained control of the rivers use and was recognized by the emperor for its special role.

As the Hanseatic League began to dissolve near the end of the Middle Ages, the Port of Hamburg continued its strong growth, surpassing Lubeck as an economic center. In 1558, a stock exchange was created, and the Bank of Hamburg was established in 1619. The Port of Hamburg was so well fortified in the early 17th Century that its business was hardly disturbed by theThirty Years Warthat disrupted much of Europe. By 1662, a convoy system for shipping was operating, and Hamburgs merchants were escorted by men-of-war as they sailed the seas. By the beginning of the 18th Century, 70 thousand people lived in the Port of Hamburg, making it Germanys second most populous city after Cologne.


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Repair work on wooden ships, approx. 1865

In 1770, the Port of Hamburg was acknowledged as an immediate imperial city, meaning it had no other overlord than the emperor. The Port of Hamburg also gained islands on the banks of the Elbe that became new docks a century later. However, the citys special status did not last long. TheNapoleonic Warsbrought an end to Germanys old order, and the city-state of Hamburg was annexed into the French Empire in 1810.

After Napoleon was defeated in 1815, the Port of Hamburg became a state in theGerman Confederation, officially designated as the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in 1819. Prosperity returned, and the Port of Hamburgs trade expanded to new territories in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The Port of Hamburg kept its independent status when theGerman Empirewas founded in 1871.

In the 1880s, warehouses were constructed for the new free Port of Hamburg. By the beginning of the 20th Century, about 700 thousand people lived in the Port of Hamburg, and the Port of Hamburg had far outgrown its limits, taking in many smaller towns surrounding its core. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the Port of Hamburg began its efforts to become Germanys gateway to the world by building new wharves and docks on the Elbe.

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World War I brought the Port of Hamburgs development to a stop in 1914. International trade disappeared, and its fleet of 1466 ships remained in the port. Furthermore, theAlliesdemanded that almost all of the Port of Hamburgs ships be turned over asreparationsafter World War I.

Even after the war was over, development in the Port of Hamburg was limited because it had already developed most of its territory. In 1937, the Port of Hamburg incorporated the nearby cities of Wandsbek, Altona, and Harburg that had been part of Prussia. As the Port of Hamburg planned to develop the new areas, World War II arrived.

World War II brought manyAlliedair raids that destroyed over half of the Port of Hamburgs facilities and took 55 thousand lives. By the time the war ended in 1945, the priority was keeping the Port of Hamburg and its people alive. Yet the citys people had a resilient spirit, and reconstruction came quickly.City-Nord, the Port of Hamburgs huge new business district was built in the 1960s, and the Port of Hamburgs nightclubs became a popular hang-out for British rock bands. TheBeatlesappeared there in the early 1960s.

In 1962, a terrible flood killed over 300 people and destroyed much of the old city. In the mid-1960s, the Port of Hamburgs population hit a peak of over 1.8 million before the suburban shift began.

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When Germany was unified in 1990, the Port of Hamburg enjoyed increased trade with eastern and central Europe, and the Port of Hamburg enjoyed a long modernization effort. In 1994, the Port of Hamburg became a seat for a Roman Catholic bishopric. Today, it is a proud city with cherished traditions and a vibrant cultural and business life that makes it one of the worlds most exciting cities.